The White Sox obtained minor league right-hander Kyle Cofield in Friday's trade.
The 34-year-old Linebrink will add experience to an Atlanta bullpen that loses closer Billy Wagner and Takashi Saito.
Linebrink is under contract through the 2011 season. The Braves also receive cash in the deal.
Linebrink was 3-2 with a 4.40 ERA in 52 games with Chicago in 2010, his 11th season in the major leagues. He has a 38-27 career record and 3.50 ERA.
The 23-year-old Cofield was 1-4 with a 4.47 ERA in 20 games at Double-A Mississippi and the Braves' Gulf Coast League rookie team last season.