|Allegations and investigations|
|Top US officials in Iraq first received human rights groups allegations of prisoner abuse
a year ago and were informed about sexually humiliating practices in Abu Ghraib prison
a half a year before the public airing of graphic photos that led to the present scandal.
UP THE CHAIN OF COMMAND
MAY TO NOV. 2003: The International Committee of the Red Cross visits jails and makes periodic reports to US authorities in Iraq on prisoner abuse.
LATE JUNE 2003: Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski of the Army Reserve takes command of the 800th Military Police Brigade, which oversees all 16 Army-run prisons in Iraq.
JULY 2003: In a memo to the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), Amnesty International alleges torture and abuse of Iraqi prisoners in US custody, including beatings, electric shocks, and sleep deprivation.
AUG. 31 SEPT. 9: Maj. Gen. Geoffrey Miller, who runs the military prison for terror suspects at Guantanamo Bay, conducts an inquiry on interrogation and detention procedures in Iraq and suggests that prison guards can help set conditions for the interrogation of prisoners.
NOV. 5: Head of Army law enforcement, Provost Marshal Donald Ryder, concludes there are potential human rights, training, and manpower problems systemwide in a report to Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, head of US forces in Iraq.
JAN. 13, 2004: Spec. Joseph Darby reports abuse at Abu Ghraib prison to his superiors. Darby serves in Karpinski's unit.
JAN. 14: Investigation begins.
JAN. 16: Military officials in Iraq and Washington announce an investigation into abuse of Iraqi prisoners. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld later reports this is his first notice of the allegations.
JAN. 19: Sanchez requests a review of Abu Ghraib prison procedures.
JAN. 24: Head of US Central Command Gen. John Abizaid orders an investigation.
JAN. 31: Maj. Gen. Antonio Taguba is named chief investigative officer and begins the review.
LATE JANUARY: Karpinski is formally admonished and suspended.
FEBRUARY: CPA head L. Paul Bremer III receives a 24-page Red Cross report alleging abuse tantamount to torture in some cases, including Geneva Conventions violations, such as brutality, physical or psychological coercion, and prolonged solitary confinement.
MARCH: Rumsfeld discusses abuse with President Bush, according to Rumsfeld's testimony yesterday.
MARCH 3: Taguba presents preliminary findings in a classified report. Copies leaked to the press say that, as early as Sept. 9, 2003, military police were ordered to change prison procedures to set the conditions for prisoner interrogations. Taguba singles out two intelligence officers and two civilian contractors for blame.
MARCH 12: Taguba briefs military officials in Iraq.
MARCH 20: Army criminal investigators recommend charges against six soldiers.
APRIL 6: Seven soldiers are given letters of reprimand; two are relieved of duty.
MID-APRIL: Gen. Richard B. Myers, chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, asks 60 Minutes II to delay broadcasting photos and reporting on Abu Ghraib.
APRIL 28: CBS airs photographs of abuse, including hooded, naked prisoners forced to simulate sex acts.
APRIL 30: Pentagon announces Maj. Gen. Miller has been put in charge of US-run prisons in Iraq.
MAY 1: The New Yorker publishes details of the Taguba report.
MAY 2: Myers says in a TV interview that he has not read the Taguba report.
MAY 4: Rumsfeld says he has read the conclusions and other parts of the Taguba report.
MAY 5: Bush tells Arabiclanguage television networks that he first learned of the photos when they were televised on April 28.
MAY 6: Rumsfeld first sees official photos of the abuse, according to his testimony yesterday.
MAY 7: Rumsfeld and Myers testify before the House Armed Services Committee on the abuse.
MAY 10: President Bush said in remarks to the media that Rumsfeld was doing a "superb job" as secretary of defense.
SOURCES: Press reports; Agence France-Presse; Amnesty International
Globe Staff Graphic / Kathleen Hennrikus, Sean McNaughton
Photos / Wire Services