|PUTTING ASIDE ACRIMONY
Officials say Hillary Rodham Clinton and mediators from Switzerland intervened to help broker a solution.
Turkey, Armenia sign historic accord to establish diplomatic relations
Pact could lead to reopening of border
ZURICH - Armenia and Turkey signed a landmark agreement yesterday to establish diplomatic ties, after a dramatic last-minute intervention by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton to keep the event from falling apart.
The accord, aimed at ending a century of hostility stemming from Ottoman Era massacres, was brokered by the Swiss over the past two years, with the help of French, Russian, and US officials. Clinton had been in frequent contact with the two sides in recent months to help seal the deal.
But just as she arrived at the University of Zurich for the signing yesterday, Clinton heard that the Armenian side was objecting to a Turkish statement prepared for the ceremony, officials said. Clinton’s motorcade made a U-turn and raced back to the hotel, where a US diplomat was talking to the Armenians.
In the hotel parking lot, Clinton sat in her sedan in a soft rain for about an hour, talking on one phone to the Armenian foreign minister and on another to the Turkish foreign minister, Ahmet Davutoglu. Finally, she went into the hotel to invite the Armenian foreign minister, Edward Nalbandian, to drive with her to the university, where his Turkish counterpart was waiting.
Once there, hours of negotiating ensued with a broader group of international diplomats, including Russia’s foreign minister, Sergey Lavrov, before the documents were signed. In an apparent compromise, neither the Turks nor the Armenians made a statement at the ceremony.
The drama was a sign of the enduring suspicion between the two countries and of the difficulties that could lie ahead as their parliaments decide whether to ratify them.
Muslim Turkey and Christian Armenia have had bitter relations since a wave of bloodshed starting in 1915 left hundreds of thousands of ethnic Armenians dead.
Many historians call the killings genocide, but Turkey strongly rejects that label, saying people died in forced relocations and fighting.
If ratified, the accord could have implications well beyond Turkey and Armenia. It may ease tensions in other parts of southeastern Europe and provide new opportunities for oil pipelines to the West, US officials said.
Clinton said that as the hours of negotiations ticked on, she repeatedly urged the participants to look at the bigger picture.
“There were several times when I said to all of the parties involved, that ‘This is too important. This has to be seen through. You’ve gone too far. All of the work that has gone into the protocols should not be walked away from,’ ’’ she told reporters traveling with her.
The Armenian-Turkish dispute has echoed far beyond the region, prompting battles in Washington between the White House and lawmakers pushing to recognize the killings as genocide.
Republican and Democratic presidents have resisted such resolutions, worried that they would damage US relations with Turkey, a NATO member that has provided crucial support for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The two protocols signed yesterday would establish diplomatic relations, open the border between Turkey and Armenia that was closed in 1993, and establish committees to work on economic affairs, the environment, and other bilateral issues.
The protocols do not explicitly mention the genocide controversy, which would go to a committee of historical experts for study.