Hamas hardens grip on Gaza as hope for peace deal fades
GAZA CITY, Gaza Strip - Hamas's control of the Gaza Strip is now virtually complete.
Since the summer, the Islamic militants have silenced and disarmed their remaining opponents, filled the bureaucracy with their supporters, and kept Gaza's economy afloat, even if just barely, despite a 16-month-old international embargo and border blockades by Israel and Egypt.
With nothing in sight to weaken Hamas's grip, the political split between Gaza and the West Bank - the two territories meant to make up a future Palestinian state - looks increasingly irreversible.
That conclusion was also reached by the International Crisis Group, an independent think tank, in a September report describing Hamas's ascendancy, and the split is one of the main obstacles to US efforts to forge an Israeli-Palestinian peace deal.
It weakens moderate President Mahmoud Abbas in the negotiations because he isn't seen as speaking for Gaza. Israel, Abbas, and the international community don't want a deal that leaves out the 140-square mile Gaza Strip's and its 1.4 million Palestinians. And it's unlikely Israel would give up the West Bank as long as Hamas is in charge in Gaza.
Undisputed rule has also improved Hamas's leverage ahead of power-sharing talks with Abbas's Fatah movement in Cairo later this month.
Ahmed Yousef, a Hamas leader, said his movement is eager to reconcile with Abbas. "If there is no pressure from the United States and Israel [on Abbas], we can build a good national unity government," Yousef said.
In previous negotiations, however, the militants showed little willingness to give up any of their power and are unlikely to do so now.
Instead, the failure of this round of talks could set the stage for a new round in the Palestinian power struggle.
Compounding Abbas's troubles is a dispute with Hamas over whether Palestinian law allows him to remain in office after Jan. 8, when Hamas says his term officially ends. Abbas, relying on an amendment that was never fully ratified, asserts he can stay on another year.
Hamas, citing Palestinian law, is set to appoint its own man, Deputy Parliament Speaker Ahmed Bahar, as president in January.
Abbas would be hard put to portray the Islamists as usurpers of power when his own legal status is in question.
"Starting in January, no one is legitimate," said analyst Ghassan Khatib, a former Cabinet minister in the West Bank.
"And when everyone is equal in being illegitimate, the advantaged party is the one that has the strength on the ground."
That party is Hamas, which defeated thousands of forces loyal to Abbas in a five-day blitz in June 2007.
"We believe that Hamas is going ahead with its plan to sever Gaza from the West Bank and to build its own regime," said former deputy prime minister Azzam Ahmed of Fatah.
"We believe they are succeeding."
One reason they are succeeding is the situation on the ground. Gaza City's streets are cleaner and safer than before the takeover.
Despite budget shortages, Hamas has fixed traffic lights, paved some streets, and opened a new children's hospital. Hamas says it has imposed law and order after the chaos that often dogged Fatah rule.
It has also been careful not to push an overtly Islamic social agenda. For example, officials have suggested to female reporters covering Gaza's Parliament that they wear head scarves, but those who don't are not shunned.
Still, one-party rule has made dissenters reluctant to talk openly, especially after hundreds of Fatah activists were rounded up over the summer.
Hamas now controls every aspect of daily life, from screening visitors at a new border checkpoint to running what the International Crisis Group described as a network of paid and volunteer informers.
Hamas has seized opportunities to neutralize opponents.
A July bombing blamed on Fatah gave Hamas a pretext for shutting dozens of offices of Fatah and related associations. Hamas police officers guard the now empty former Fatah headquarters.
"Everything has been taken over, and there is nothing left for Fatah in the Gaza Strip," said Hazem Abu Shanab, a Fatah spokesman who spent nearly two months in Hamas custody after the July blast.