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Estonia makes human trafficking illegal

Outside view of the Gentlemens Club in the Old City in Tallinn, Estonia, Tuesday, March 20, 2012. Estonia is the only European Union country without a law about human trafficking, but legislators are expected to change that Wednesday in a vote largely prompted by concerns expressed by the United States. Prostitution is legal in Estonia, but forced prostitution is not. Distinctions between the two are opaque in Estonian laws, according to activists, and the current penal code does not recognize sexual exploitation of a minor or forced labor as crimes. Outside view of the Gentlemens Club in the Old City in Tallinn, Estonia, Tuesday, March 20, 2012. Estonia is the only European Union country without a law about human trafficking, but legislators are expected to change that Wednesday in a vote largely prompted by concerns expressed by the United States. Prostitution is legal in Estonia, but forced prostitution is not. Distinctions between the two are opaque in Estonian laws, according to activists, and the current penal code does not recognize sexual exploitation of a minor or forced labor as crimes. (AP Photo/Timur Nisametdinov, NIPA)
By Jari Tanner
Associated Press / March 21, 2012
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TALLINN, Estonia—Estonia's Parliament passed legislation on Wednesday banning human trafficking and making the Baltic nation the last EU country to enact such laws.

The lawmakers voted 91-0 in favor, with 10 members absent. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves is expected to make the bill law by approving it in the coming weeks.

Estonia had been under pressure from the United States to adopt such legislation and thereby avoid being kept on a watchlist the U.S. State Department keeps of countries it regards as lax in fighting human trafficking. The list has included Belarus and Russia and EU members Cyprus and Malta.

Such criticism embarrassed Estonia, a small country that considers the U.S. a key ally and has long been sensitive to its image overseas.

Andres Anvelt, of Estonia's opposition Social Democratic Party, called the bill passed Wednesday "a breakthrough" for the nation of 1.3 million people. "This is the first step forward in fighting human trafficking," Anvelt said in Parliament as lawmakers prepared to vote.

The U.S. Embassy in Tallinn also praised Estonia's government.

The new law "is a testament to the commitment both of Estonian lawmakers and of the NGOs who have worked tirelessly to secure justice for the victims of human trafficking and ensure substantial punishment" for perpetrators of the crime, embassy spokeswoman Michelle Schohn said in an email to The Associated Press.

The measure, fast-tracked by Estonia's Justice Ministry, makes human trafficking punishable by a maximum 15-year prison sentence. It also criminalizes sexual exploitation, including forcing minors to work as prostitutes or to appear in pornographic films and erotic performances.

Existing laws had ignored human trafficking issues such as the recruiting, transporting and exploiting victims, and allowed perpetrators to get away with short jail sentences or fines.

The last U.S. watchlist report said Estonia was not sufficiently fighting forced labor and forced prostitution.

"Estonia is a source, transit, and destination country for women subjected to forced prostitution" that report had said, noting that women, particularly from rural areas, were at risk of being forced into prostitution in the capital, Tallinn. They also risked being taken abroad to work as prostitutes in countries such as Finland, Britain, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, the report said.

Estonian support groups for victims say typical cases involved women who were lured to work in striptease clubs as dancers but ended up being forced to offer sexual services to club clients.

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