boston.com your connection to The Boston Globe

Global warming gains foothold in Bangladesh

Climate changes already causing heavier flooding

BHAMIA, Bangladesh -- Global warming has a taste in this village. It is the taste of salt.

Only a few years ago, water from the local pond was fresh and sweet on Samit Biswas's tongue. It quenched his family's thirst and cleansed their bodies.

But drinking a cupful now leaves a briny flavor in his mouth. Tiny white crystals sprout on Biswas's skin after he bathes and in his clothes after his wife washes them.

The change, international scientists say, is the result of intensified flooding caused by shifting climate patterns. Warmer weather and rising oceans are sending seawater surging up Bangladesh's rivers in greater volume and frequency than ever before, specialists say, overflowing and seeping into the soil and the water supplies of thousands of people.

Their lives are being squeezed by distant lands they have seen only on television -- the United States, China, and Russia at the top of the heap -- whose carbon emissions are pushing temperatures and sea levels inexorably upward. Earlier this month, a long-awaited report by the United Nations said global warming fueled by human activity could raise temperatures by 8 degrees and the ocean's surface by 23 inches by 2100.

In southwest Bangladesh, the bleak future forecast by the report is already becoming a reality, bringing misery along with it.

Heavier-than-usual floods have wiped out homes and paddies . They have increased the salinity of the water, which is contaminating wells, killing trees, and slowly poisoning the mighty mangrove jungle that forms a natural barrier against the Bay of Bengal.

If sea levels continue to rise at their present rate, by the time Biswas, 35, retires from his job as a teacher, the only home he has known will be swamped, overrun by the ocean with the force of an unstoppable army. That, in turn, will trigger another kind of flood: millions of displaced residents desperate for a place to live.

"It will be a disaster," Biswas said.

Bangladesh, a densely crowded and painfully poor nation, contributes only a minuscule amount to the greenhouse gases slowly smothering the planet. But a combination of geography and demography puts it among the countries that specialists predict will be hardest hit as the earth heats up.

Nearly 150 million people, the equivalent of about half the US population, live packed in an area the size of Iowa and about as flat. Home to where the mighty Brahmaputra , Ganges , and Meghna rivers meet, most of Bangladesh is a vast delta of alluvial plains that are barely above sea level, making it prone to flooding from waterways swollen by rain, snowmelt from the Himalayas, and increased infiltration by the ocean.

Global warming trends have already exacerbated that, and the situation will probably only get worse, scientists say.

"A little increase in temperature, a little climate change, has a magnified impact here," said A. Atiq Rahman, the director of the Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies -- the country's leading environmental research group -- based in Dhaka, the capital. "That's what makes the population here so vulnerable."

Other low-lying countries are also at risk, such as the Netherlands and tiny islands in the South Pacific that could eventually be swallowed by the expanding oceans. But the population of these countries is only a fraction of that of Bangladesh.

If the sea rises by a foot, which some researchers say could happen by 2040, the resulting damage would set back Bangladesh's progress by 30 years, Rahman said. Up to 12 percent of the population would be made homeless.

A 3-foot rise by century's end -- a possible scenario if polar ice caps melt at a more rapid pace, would wreak havoc in Bangladesh on an apocalyptic, Atlantis-like scale, according to scientific projections and models.

A quarter of the country would be submerged. Dhaka, now in the center of the nation, would sit within 60 miles of the coast, where boats would float over the drowned remnants of countless town squares, markets, houses, and schools. As many as 30 million people would become refugees in their own land, many of them subsistence farmers with nothing to subsist on any longer.

"Tomorrow's poverty will be far worse than today's," Rahman said.

For years, the government either denied or downplayed the danger . Bangladesh is hardly unique in that regard; many accuse the United States of doing the same. Rahman recalls overhearing officials call him a madman when he warned that Bangladesh risked being permanently inundated.

But the weight of scientific opinion has grown, as has evidence that climate patterns are already shifting and producing harmful effects in this region. Politicians who had previously dismissed global warming as a far-off problem are starting to see it as a clear and present danger.

SEARCH THE ARCHIVES