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Nuclear shadow
A look at nuclear proliferation, the most worrisome threat in an age of terror.

Obstacles to peace
A continuing series on the struggle for peace between Israelis, Palestinians.

Anniversary of 9/11
A look at how the world has changed one year after the terrorist attacks.

The postwar scenario


A number of groups may have a say in the future of Iraq.
Some of the groups & their leaders

Profiles of Iraqi political groups


Interim authority in postwar Iraq


(AP Photo)

Jay Garner, the 64-year-old three-star general who headed the resettlement of Kurdish refugees in the 1991 Gulf War, is director of the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for Postwar Iraq.

Education: Bachelorís degree, history, Florida State University, 1962; masters degree, public administration, Shippensburg University

Experience: Commissioned second lieutenant, Army, 1962; served two tours of duty in Vietnam War, 1967- 68, 1971-72; commander, 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, 32nd Army Air Defense Command in Europe, 1984-86; deputy commanding general at Fort Bliss, Air Defense Artillery Center, 1988-90; assistant commandant for Army Air Defense Artillery School, 1988-90; deputy commanding general, V Corps, Germany and VII Corps in Europe, 1990-92; commanding general, Joint Task Force Bravo, Operation Provide Comfort in northern Iraq, 1991; assistant deputy chief of staff for operations and plans, 1992-94; commanding general, Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, 1994-96; assistant vice chief of staff for the Army, 1996-97; president, SY Tech. Inc. (now SYColeman Corp.), 1997-present (currently on unpaid leave) Europe, 1984-86; deputy commanding general at Fort Bliss, Air Defense Artillery Center, 1988-90; assistant commandant for Army Air 96; assistant vice chief of staff for the Army, 1996-97; president, SY Tech. Inc. (now SYColeman Corp.), 1997- present (currently on unpaid leave)

Source: AP

More on Jay Garner


The Wild Card in a Post-Saddam Iraq (December 15, 2002)
By Peter W. Galbraith
They've been gassed by Saddam Hussein and betrayed by the United States. But today, the Kurds have economic prosperity and representative government in northern Iraq - and they intend to keep it.


UN Post Conflict Assessment Unit

  • Iraq environmental information
  • Study on Environment in Iraq (PDF)

  • When the war in Iraq comes to a close, the US and its allies will be faced with the pressing question of how to manage the post-Saddam Hussein era and help the Iraqi people rebuild their country.

    February 12, 2003
    US aides sidestep queries on cost of rebuilding Iraq
    Rebuilding basic services in a postwar Iraq would take at least two years, but it is impossible to predict how much money or time the United States would have to commit to provide security and restore stability there, a senior State Department official told a skeptical Senate committee yesterday.

    February 20, 2003
    US postwar plan irks Iraqi opposition
    The Bush administration, planning for a postwar Iraq, appears to have turned its back on former proteges in the opposition in favor of a US military government because of concerns the expatriate politicians lack democratic credentials and could open the country to Islamic influence from neighboring Iran.

    February 27, 2003
    Bush talks of a 'free' Iraq
    President Bush outlined his vision for a democratic Iraq last night, preparing the nation for war with a sweeping promise to usher an "age of progress and liberty" into the Middle East by removing Saddam Hussein from power.

    February 28, 2003
    Military would rapidly demobilize after war, US says
    Following a possible war with Iraq, the Bush administration plans to significantly scale back US military forces in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and at least four other Mideast countries that no longer would need protection from President Saddam Hussein's regime, senior US officials say.

    Bush's postwar scenario debated
    President Bush's critics said yesterday that his vision for a democratic Iraq and a peaceful Mideast is based on faulty ideology that will provoke resistance at every turn. But his supporters called Bush's plan historic, saying it starts a long march toward broad freedoms in the Middle East.

    March 4, 2003
    Kennedy speech to deride Bush's postwar vision
    President Bush's assertion that a war against Iraq would bring peace to the troubled Middle East is "simplistic," Senator Edward M. Kennedy says in a speech he is expected to deliver today to a conference of religious leaders.

    March 6, 2003
    Horrors old, new sear Iraq's Kurds
    At the end of the bridge in this village that straddles Kurdish-controlled Iraq and Saddam Hussein's Iraq, a 30-foot flame billowing with black smoke scars the blue sky.

    March 12, 2003
    US to finance early postwar Iraqi regime, officials say
    The United States plans to finance the Iraqi government and military in the first months after removing Saddam Hussein from power, employing Iraqi soldiers to help rebuild the country, Defense Department officials said yesterday.

    March 18, 2003
    After discord, UN's effectiveness called into question
    In September, President Bush challenged the UN Security Council to force Iraq to disarm or face becoming irrelevant. When the United States abandoned its effort for a new UN resolution yesterday, no one disputed that diplomacy had failed, only whether the blame lay with the United States or the United Nations itself.

    March 20, 2003
    US is accused of hoarding contracts to rebuild
    The Bush administration is preparing to invest billions of dollars in Iraqi hospitals, schools, and roads immediately after the end of hostilities against Baghdad, in part to assure the Arab world that America's drive for war is about political change, not profits.

    March 22, 2003
    Groups press US for role in postwar relief
    UNITED NATIONS -- Relief aid could be expedited to Iraq, now that coalition troops have captured a strategic southern port, but aid groups warned yesterday that Iraqis still face an unprecedented humanitarian crisis.

    March 23, 2003
    Reviving Iraq's middle class
    In a country known for ancient relics, Captain Akram Hasan is a living reminder of one of the Arab world's most important modern achievements -- the Iraqi middle class -- and a possible beneficiary of the Bush administration's postwar reconstruction plans.

    March 26, 2003
    Analysts say little is known about Iraq
    With academics, analysts, and Iraqi exiles crowding the airwaves and the op-ed pages lately, it would seem that the United States does not suffer from a shortage of specialists on Iraq.

    March 28, 2003
    Envoys clash over competing visions of postwar Iraq
    As fighting rages between allied troops and Saddam Hussein's forces for military control of Iraq, world leaders are waging their own diplomatic war over whether the United States -- or the United Nations -- should be in charge of Iraq's postwar reconstruction.

    March 31, 2003
    Far from home, Iraqi exiles train to rebuild their nation
    Tariq and Walid fled Iraq after the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Now, with a new conflict raging in their homeland, they're both heading back there.

    April 1, 2003
    Fedayeen militia will be a postwar threat, some say
    US military and intelligence officials said yesterday they fear that the Fedayeen Saddam, the deadly paramilitary group preying on US troops in southern Iraq, will become a long-lasting vigilante force, carrying out attacks on US targets long after Saddam Hussein is gone.

    April 3, 2003
    Many relief groups are urging civilian aid for postwar Iraq
    UN and US relief groups are protesting efforts by the Bush administration to place the Pentagon in charge of delivery of humanitarian aid, saying the arrangement will undermine efforts to help needy Iraqis.

    April 4, 2003
    Forces get first test of building new order
    This southern Iraqi port is the first town where British and American forces are trying to build a new civil order to replace the Ba'ath regime, and already the task is proving daunting.

    April 5, 2003
    After the war, US considers letting Iraq join the group of preferred buyers in region
    The White House wants to make postwar Iraq a preferred customer for US arms sales, opening another new Asian market to defense contractors.

    Exile to leave Mass. to help build free Iraqi society
    Amid widespread skepticism, Iraqi exile Zainab Al-Suwaij of Quincy came to the capital yesterday to offer her vision of a post-Saddam Hussein Iraq: a civil society governed by a parliament representing the country's religious and ethnic factions.

    April 9, 2003
    Turning to thoughts of winning the peace
    Day by day, war in Iraq is hard and bloody. But the aftermath can be just as hard in its own way. Many Americans are trying to see beyond the images of smoke, flame, and death to the landscape once the shooting stops.

    Bush, Blair press UN postwar role
    Emerging from hours of closed-door meetings yesterday, President Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain called on the United Nations to play a "vital role" in providing humanitarian aid to a postwar Iraq.

    April 10, 2003
    Debate heats up over the rebuilding of Iraq
    With Saddam Hussein's regime all but vanished, the de facto ruler of Iraq is now a retired Army general, Jay Garner, who is best known for helping to feed Kurdish refugees after the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    Leaders, split on war, now debate peace
    As jubilant Iraqis danced in the streets of Baghdad, European leaders yesterday turned their attention to the thorny issue of who will control the peace. Governments across the continent focused on addressing the privation of Iraqi civilians and mending diplomatic relations tattered by the war

    Challenges seen shaping world order, US course
    The dramatic fall of central Baghdad yesterday may seal the fate of President Saddam Hussein's regime, but it leaves open the question of whether this fight will ultimately bring more benefits than harm to the United States.

    A sovereign Iraq
    SYMBOLS RARELY mirror reality as closely as the toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue in Baghdad's Firdos Square reflected the collapse of his regime yesterday. After initial resistance, both fell ignominiously -- and rather easily.

    Immediate goal is an infusion of stability
    Coalition forces will focus on securing and stabilizing Baghdad in coming days, simultaneously trying to eliminate any last pockets of resistance while restoring civic order to Iraq's capital, US officials said yesterday.

    Reforms needed to rebuild Iraqi economy
    The rebuilding of Iraq could invigorate the Arab world's stagnant economies -- considered fertile ground for political instability and fundamentalism -- but without wholesale reform, any new wealth will probably find its way into the region's vast black markets.

    April 11, 2003
    European foes of war to meet on postwar Iraq
    The leaders of Germany, France, and Russia, the three main opponents of the US-led war in Iraq, meet today in St. Petersburg to map their vision for a post-Saddam Hussein era, a vision that could heighten their problems with Washington if they insist on a primary role for the United Nations.

    Uniting the opposition proving difficult
    Administration officials scrambled yesterday to salvage a hastily announced meeting of opposition groups in Iraq slated for next week, as one key figure was killed and several others threatened not to attend.

    April 15, 2003
    A time for humility
    President Bush and his senior advisers have shown they are willing to brandish a big stick against Saddam Hussein; now they will have to muster the wisdom to walk softly. The virtues needed for the postwar period will be the humble comportment Bush promised in foreign policy when he first took office and the shrewdness to keep in sight the nation's long-term strategic interests.

    April 16, 2003
    As group gathers gingerly, a call for democracy
    A gathering of prominent Iraqis, convened by US officials yesterday next to a 4,000-year-old ziggurat, took a cautious first step toward creating a new government for the Iraqi people, agreeing to a 13-point declaration calling for a federal democracy that respects Iraq's ethnic and religious diversity.

    5,000 march to have say on future of Iraq
    As a small hand-picked group of Iraqis debated Iraq's political future yesterday, about 5,000 others who did not get an invitation marched through the center of this historic city with their own expression of democracy, chanting, "yes, yes for freedom," and "yes, yes for Islam."

    April 18, 2003
    Military looks for help in its new role as facilitator
    President Bush and other US officials have steadfastly stopped short of declaring the Iraq war complete, but the military has shifted almost entirely into post-conflict operations focused on helping reestablish local governments, turning power back on, and supplying water and other essentials.

    April 21, 2003
    Top US official heads to a capital struggling to redefine its future
    Jay Garner, the retired US general assigned to rebuild war-torn Iraq, is slated to arrive here today for his first look at this beleaguered capital, still reeling from civil disorder 12 days after it fell to American forces.

    April 22, 2003
    Rebuilding chief tours Baghdad
    Jay Garner, Iraq's US-appointed postwar administrator, arrived in Baghdad yesterday for the first time, visiting sites that underscore the troubles still plaguing the capital 13 days after US troops swept in.

    April 23, 2003
    In pilgrims' zeal, Iraq majority's wish for role seen
    The Shi'ite pilgrimage to the Iraqi holy city of Karbala that ended yesterday was more than an outpouring of religious sentiment bottled up for 25 years.

    Political parties sprouting in Iraq
    For decades, there was only one political choice in Iraq: the ruling regime's Ba'ath Party, which dictated every Iraqi's life through repression, violence, and fear.

    April 25, 2003
    US shuns Iran-style theocracy for Iraq
    Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld declared yesterday that the United States would not tolerate an Iranian-style theocracy in Iraq.

    April 26, 2003
    With oil-for-food program in limbo, fears grow
    Life under Saddam Hussein came with one precious possession that most Iraqis fear they will lose: the oil card.

    April 27, 2003
    Shi'ites quickly emerge as political force
    When the council of top Shi'ite clerics in Najaf decided to call for democratic elections and an end to the US military presence, they faced the daunting challenge of spreading their message in a country without phones.

    US pace on Iraq recovery criticized
    Day after day, an increasingly vocal Iraqi public is demanding that the United States apply the same skill and efficiency in building the peace that it used to defeat Saddam Hussein's army.

    April 28, 2003
    All eyes on the homeland in Detroit's Iraqi community
    The Middle East meets the American Middle West in this city, where evening prayers from the Karbalaa Islamic Education Center echo along Warren Avenue and everyone has an opinion about Iraq's future.

    April 29, 2003
    Rebuilding of ministries is key hurdle
    At 8:30 every morning for the past week, staff from the Ministry of Irrigation have arrived for work at their new office -- the parking lot of their charred government complex.

    May 2, 2003
    Afghanistan offers lesson on rebuilding
    On a rutted, teeth-rattling road about 40 miles west of Kabul, the reconstruction of Afghanistan is bogged down in a traffic jam.

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