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Latest coverage Second man charged in U.S. embassy attack


US charges one suspect in bombing

Prior Coverage
Missile strike strains fragile US-Pakistan tie

Terror figure's family has benign ties in US

Bomb kills 1, hurts 25 at Cape Town eatery

Japan cult may have used agent found in Sudan

Heightened security signals wariness of terror

Taliban report vow by Saudi tied to blasts

Arab League calls missile attacks "blatant violation"

Assets frozen
US targets terrorist wealth

Detainees speak
3 reportedly tell of embassy plot

Prepared to die
At rally, Sudan leader invokes holy war

Flashpoints Elsewhere
The other US foreign-policy hurdles

Hardening Policy
US adopts Israeli tactics

Local Response
Wagging dog? Fine, some say

News Analysis
A hectic period that left a lasting skepticism

Vacation Redux
Clinton flies back to his haven on Vineyard

Afghans, Sudanese denounce attacks

Chronology
US responses to terrorism

Saudi exile vows 'war' on US

Security levels raised across US

US calls terrorists' losses significant

Security at monument is tightened

Pakistan multinational staff says they feel threatened

Egypt says it not involved in strikes on Sudan

Sudanese mob British embassy in Khartoum

Reports dull success of strikes

Arab world enraged by attacks

Pakistan says missile didn't land on soil

Most Americans approve of Clinton's decision

More than 70 protest in Boston

Angry Sudanese storm embassy

Security tight in NY, Boston

US hits "terrorist facilities" in Afghanistan, Sudan

At home, timing of move appears suspect to some

Rapid retaliation departure for US

Allies back US strikes

With 2d address, a different Clinton

Reaction
Friends register backing; foes, fury

The weapon
Tomahawk missiles' accuracy is improved

Religious zeal supplanting politics as motive

An attack project born amid turmoil

Quick, need rewrite! A vacation hiatus surprises press

Culture of cynicism makes comparisons to movie inevitable

Editorial
The right response to terrorists

With 2d address, a different Clinton

Profile
Elusive Saudi main suspect in US bomb probe


The Air Strikes
Details

Comments

The attack on Sudan

The attack on Afghanistan


Out Front
(Associated Press)

"Islamic Int'l" now in sights of a superpower

Prominent Arab militants from Afghanistan

Militancy has many names


Maps
From the CIA

-Afghanistan
-Sudan


Statements
President Clinton

Military leaders


Key facts about Sudan

KHARTOUM (Reuters) - These are the key facts about Sudan:

POPULATION: 26 million (1993 census), mainly Arab and Nubian in the north and Nilotic in the south. About 70 percent are Moslem and animists make up about 25 percent. The Christians make up about five percent and are concentrated in the south.

AREA: 2.5 million sq km (967,500 sq miles). Africa's largest country in area, Sudan straddles the middle reaches of the Nile. It is bounded by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Ethiopia and Eritrea to the east, Kenya, Uganda and Zaire to the south and the Central African Republic, Chad and Libya to the west.

CAPITAL: Khartoum. Population 3.5 million (1993).

ARMED FORCES: According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Sudan has an army of 115,000, including 30,000 conscripts. It is armed with a total of 250 T-54 and T-55 tanks. The air force of 3,000 has at least 50 combat aircraft including MiG-21 and MiG-23 fighters. A navy of 1,500 men based at Port Sudan has three inshore patrol craft and four river patrol boats.

ECONOMY: Sudan, hit by drought, famine, and rebellion in the south, is one of the world's poorest countries. 1995 GDP was under $2 billion (source: Economist Intelligence Unit). Foreign debt is over $16 billion. Sudan just escaped being ousted from the International Monetary Fund last year. It has made substantial progress on economic reforms and expects six percent growth for the next five years.

The IMF has urged Sudan to do more to pay off its arrears to the international lending institution and welcomed a government commitment to pay $21 million of arrears this year. The IMF said in February 1997 it would ask Sudan to leave unless it started paying its bills regularly. The IMF in April said Sudan's economy would grow by 6.5 percent this year, up from 5.5 percent in 1997. It expected inflation to fall to 15 percent, from 32 percent in 1997.

In November, 1997, U.S. President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on Sudan for what the White House said was Sudan's support for terrorism, a charge Khartoum has denied.

Sudan has found modest oil reserves in the south but rebel activity has dented hopes of a petro-dollar bonanza. Exports of cotton and gum arabic provide token sources of hard currency.

MODERN HISTORY: Egypt ruled Sudan from 1821 until the Mahdist revolution in 1885. An independent Mahdist Islamic state survived until 1898, when an Anglo-Egyptian victory at Omdurman established Anglo-Egyptian rule until independence in 1956.

The military under Ibrahim Abbound overthrew a civilian government in 1958. African southerners, mainly Christians and animists, waged a secessionist bush war against a mostly Arab, Moslem north that claimed a million lives before a 1972 agreement granted the south autonomy.

The architect of that accord was Jaafar Nimeiri, who became president in a bloodless army coup in 1969. In 1983 Nimeiri moved close to the fundamentalist Moslem Brotherhood and imposed strict Sharia (Islamic Law).

Renewed insurrection in the south by the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was fuelled by the adoption of Sharia, the sub-division of the south into three regional administrations and a deteriorating economy.

In April 1985, while in the United States, Nimeiri was overthrown in a bloodless coup and went to Egypt in exile.

A Transitional Military Council led by General Abdul-Rahman Mohamed Hassan Swareddahab, which controlled an interim cabinet of civilians, ruled Sudan for a year.

In April 1986, Sudan held elections to return to civilian rule. About 30 parties took part, with the Umma party of Sadeq al-Mahdi emerging as the largest.

A national unity government was formed with Mahdi, a direct descendant of the founder of the 19th-century Mahdist state, as Prime Minister.

On June 30 1989 Mahdi's civilian government was toppled in a coup which placed Lieutanant-General Omar Hassan al-Bashir as the head of a military junta.

Influential Islamist ideologue Hassan al-Turabi, briefly imprisoned after the coup, soon emerged as a powerful figure despite holding no official position in Bashir's government.

Turabi's fundamentalist brand of Islam and Sudan's perceived support for Iraq in the 1990-91 Gulf War earned the country ever-increasing isolation.

The United States and Sudan's northern neighbour Egypt, which blames Khartoum for the failed 1995 assassination attempt on President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa, accused Sudan of training Moslem militants in military camps around the country.

Sudan has accused at three of its neighbours, Erirea, Uganda and Ethiopia, of launching cross-border raids in support of the SPLA, which has waged a 15-year insurrection costing more than 1.2 million lives.

Sudan's Cairo-based political exiles have hoped for years to exploit the economic plight of their country and coordinate sporadic anti-government protests into a nationwide uprising.

In April, 1996, former rebel groups signed a peace accord with the Khartoum government and formed a council intended to usher in a transitional council for the south.

But the main rebel group the SPLA rejected the accord and vowed to continue fighting. In early 1997, the National Democratic Alliance umbrella group of opposition forces joined rebel groups in the north and east with the SPLA to fight.

Peace talks resumed between the government and SPLA in October, 1997, under the auspices of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a regional grouping of seven states, brokered the third round of talks.

Another round was held in early 1998 and a third round in August collapsed after the Sudan government and the SPLA were unable to reach common ground on several major issues.

The question of state and religion, and the definition of what is South Sudan are the main stumbling block to a referendum on self-determination for the south, to which both sides have agreed in principle. The war pits the mainly Moslem, Arabised north against the mainly black African and Christian or Animist south.

The conflict, worsened by inter-ethnic fighting, has exacerbated a hunger crisis sweeping parts of southern Sudan.

International aid agencies estimate that millions of Sudanese, mainly in the south, are at risk of famine from drought and the effects of the country's devastating war.



 

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