CHICAGO - Sixteen months after voters in Michigan voted to kill affirmative action in the public sphere, opponents of preferences based on race and gender are pushing five more states to ban the practice.
Critics of affirmative action, which is meant to address current and historical inequities, delivered 128,744 signatures to Colorado authorities earlier this month. Similar organizations in Arizona, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Nebraska are circulating petitions as civil rights groups and educators are mobilizing to defeat the measures.
The initiatives are spearheaded by Ward Connerly, the most prominent opponent of affirmative action, who said he has raised $1.5 million for the campaigns. He sees the November ballot initiatives as a key step in his drive to end preferences in public education, hiring, and contracting.
"Without any doubt, we have to understand that race preferences are on the way out," said Connerly, who heads to Missouri next week to deliver speeches on behalf of that state's constitutional amendment, now tangled in a court battle over the ballot measure's wording.
In the states where Connerly's self-described "civil rights initiative" appears on the ballot, voters are likely to see it alongside the name of the first black or female major-party presidential candidate, Senator Barack Obama, Democrat of Illinois, or Senator Hillary Clinton, Democrat of New York. Connerly contends that the success of Obama and Clinton shows that preferences are no longer necessary "to compensate for, quote, institutional racism and institutional sexism."
Connerly, a prosperous and conservative black Republican, said he contributed $500 to Obama's campaign to honor him "for trying to take race out of the body politic." Obama opposes Connerly's approach to affirmative action and lent his voice to a 2006 radio ad opposing the Connerly-sponsored Proposition 2 in Michigan. (The campaign would not say whether it is keeping the money.)
Obama is not alone. Opponents of Connerly's effort are using legal challenges and grass-roots organizing techniques to keep the measures off the ballot, or to defeat them.
"As we feared, Connerly's attack on equal opportunity in Michigan has metastasized," said Wade Henderson, president of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. "We know that most Americans support equal opportunity. They know that diversity is good for business, good for the classroom, and ultimately good for the country."
Redditt Hudson, who heads the racial justice program in the St. Louis office of the American Civil Liberties Union, contends that the deck is stacked against qualified minority firms in Missouri. He said where affirmative action programs are absent from the local private sector, "you've got a minimal proportion of those contracting dollars going to minority-owned firms."
Hudson said a number of organizations are working to educate Missouri voters and hoping that Connerly's Missouri Civil Rights Initiative will fall short of the 140,000 to 150,000 signatures it needs to make the ballot.