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US nuclear revival begins with restart of TVA's oldest reactor

Site of one of worst accidents restored for $1.8b

The cooling tower of the single operating reactor at the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant in Spring City, Tenn. A decision on completing the second reactor will be made this summer. (TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY VIA ASSOCIATED PRESS)

KNOXVILLE, Tenn. -- America's nuclear energy program is being revived at the site of one of its worst accidents.

All signs from regulators and operators point to a startup within days of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Unit 1 reactor at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in Athens, Ala., culminating a five-year, $1.8 billion restoration.

Mothballed since 1985, TVA's oldest reactor was the scene of a major fire sparked by a candle three decades ago. It has been reborn as a modern 1,200-megawatt atomic generator capable of lighting 650,000 homes.

The reactor is the last of three Browns Ferry units designed in the 1960s, run in the 1970s, idled in the 1980s, and revived since the 1990s. It will be this country's first "new" nuclear generator of the 21st century -- the 104th active commercial reactor.

Though no one has applied to build a new nuclear plant in the United States since the 1970s, several are now being planned.

"You could almost point to Browns Ferry Unit 1 as really the beginning of nuclear energy's rejuvenation in the United States," said Scott Peterson, vice president of the industry's Nuclear Energy Institute.

Growing demand for electricity and concern over global climate change are propelling this nuclear renaissance. The Department of Energy estimates that 50 new reactors will be needed by 2030 to keep pace. Tighter controls on greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants are looming and will be expensive.

"If you care about global warming and clean air, it is hard not to be for nuclear power," said Senator Lamar Alexander, Republican of Tennessee and cochairman of the TVA congressional caucus.

Dealing with the radioactive waste accumulating at plant sites -- an industry volume that Peterson says would cover a football field 7 feet deep -- remains a problem. Political hurdles remain on burying it in Nevada. Technical hurdles surround proposals to reprocess it like the French.

Still, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission expects to receive fast-track construction and operating license applications for 28 standard design reactors at 19 sites by 2009, most in the energy-hungry Southeast and Southwest.

Among the interested utilities is a group of power companies and equipment manufacturers called NuStart Energy Development LLC. The consortium, which includes TVA, is looking to build two reactors at TVA's unfinished Bellefonte plant site in Hollywood, Ala.

Knoxville-based TVA, the country's largest public utility serving 8.7 million consumers in Tennessee and six surrounding states, also expects to decide by late summer if it will complete a second reactor at its Watts Bar plant in Spring City.

Watts Bar, the last new plant in the United States, came on line in 1996 after 22 years of construction. TVA still holds a construction license for a second reactor there.

TVA estimates that it could finish the second unit by 2013 for around $2 billion, about a third of the cost of the first unit. That would give TVA three plants and seven reactors, with a two-reactor Bellefonte plant coming on board between 2018 and 2020.

"We are probably going to stay in the nuclear ballpark until the clean-air regulations clear up," TVA President and CEO Tom Kilgore said. "I think nuclear (projects are) going to be in our future for a decade."

TVA will have spent nearly $6 billion on emission controls for its fleet of 11 coal plants in Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky under existing rules by the end of the decade. Tougher standards to capture carbon could cost billions more.

TVA's situation is not unique. Coal produces nearly 1 of every 2 megawatts in this country, and about 40 percent of all carbon emissions. Carbon-free nuclear supplies about 20 percent of the nation's electricity.

TVA gets 64 percent of its power from coal, 29 percent from nuclear, 6 percent from hydroelectric, and 1 percent from natural gas and diesel. TVA's wind, solar, and methane renewable energy program contributes less than 1 percent.

Jerry Paul, an energy policy specialist at the Howard Baker Center for Public Policy at the University of Tennessee, said a "confluence of issues" is behind the nuclear rebound.

"It is all about climate change and emissions. It is about economics and the recognition that nuclear power has the lowest operating cost for any form of baseload generation. It is about energy supply and security," said Paul, a lawyer, nuclear engineer and former senior Department of Energy official.

TVA shut down its entire nuclear program in 1985 over safety concerns, NRC fines, and whistleblower complaints. It scrapped three plants and delayed others. Finishing Watts Bar Unit 1 cost nearly $7 billion because of extensive rewiring and pipe rewelding.

"I think it is shortsighted. Rushing back to nuclear power is a real mistake," said Steve Smith, director of the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy.

While conceding a place for nuclear in TVA's generation mix, Smith cautioned that "we are still digging ourselves out of the last experiment TVA did with nuclear power, and it led to the massive ($25 billion) debt that TVA continues to struggle with."

Activists continue to worry about safety at TVA plants. But NRC spokesman Ken Clark said the agency's Sequoyah, Watts Bar, and Browns Ferry stations have performed well in recent years.

John Johnson, an Earth First! organizer, said TVA's reactors have run better than he expected when he was staging demonstrations against opening the Watts Bar plant 11 years ago.