TUCSON -- President Bush promoted his administration's efforts to get a grip on illegal immigration, spotlighting a plan to tighten security along the southern border and calling for a guest-worker program that would allow about 11 million illegal immigrants to work legally in the country temporarily before forcing them to return home.
Speaking yesterday at an Air Force base here about one hour north of the Mexican border, Bush put his rhetorical emphasis on measures sought by many Republicans fearful of swelling illegal immigration: stronger border enforcement with high-tech detection systems, larger centers to detain those captured, swifter proceedings to deport them, and increased policing of illegal immigrants in the interior.
''Those who enter the country illegally violate the law," Bush said. ''The American people should not have to choose between being a welcoming society and a lawful society. We can have both at the same time."
But the president faces an uphill battle in the House and Senate to realize his vision of reform, which is drawing intense skepticism from many allies in his own party who believe his approach is not tough enough. In the coming weeks, the White House must persuade lawmakers to forge together several immigration bills, differing widely in scope, into a single policy.
Bush's call for Congress to enact a temporary-worker program is especially contentious within the GOP. The president's proposal would allow foreign workers to enter the country for a fixed period -- most likely three years -- to fill jobs that go unwanted by Americans, but some Republicans reject that as too close to amnesty for illegal immigrants. The workers would be given a ''tamper-proof" identification card, and would be required to leave the country once their term in the country expires.
''Listen, there's a lot of opinions on this proposal -- I understand that," Bush said. He added that the workers would not be put on a path to citizenship and that workers who entered the country illegally would have to pay some sort of penalty before entering the program.
''I oppose amnesty," Bush said.
Will Adams, a spokesman for Representative Tom Tancredo, Republican of Colorado, said his boss was not convinced. He called the president ''Clintonesque" for advocating amnesty without actually calling it that. ''It's new lipstick on an old pig," Adams said. He asserted that a guest-worker program would award immigrants who entered the country illegally.
Others called Tancredo out of step with a party and president who are trying to tred a middle path on immigration -- enforcing the law while projecting a more welcoming tone and recognizing the reality of an economy in which newcomers play an essential role. The Coloradan, for instance, has angered some Republicans by proposing to deny American citizenship to children born to illegal immigrants, a constitutional right.
''It would be unprecedented to take such a thing to the floor," said Cecilia Muqoz, an analyst for the National Council of La Raza, a Latino civil rights group. ''It would be an outrage that my community would remember."
Bush has worked aggressively to increase the GOP's share of the historically Democratic vote of Hispanic Americans. Many business leaders, meanwhile, support a guest-worker plan.
The president's emphasis on border security marked a rhetorical shift. Previously, Bush spent more time touting his guest-worker program that would ease the way for undocumented immigrants to stay in the United States.
Democrats also are divided on the issue.