ARLINGTON, Va. -- Unlike earlier wars, nearly all Arlington National Cemetery gravestones for troops killed in Iraq or Afghanistan are inscribed with the operation names the Pentagon selected to promote public support for the conflicts.
Families of fallen soldiers and Marines are being told they have the option to have the government-furnished headstones engraved with ''Operation Enduring Freedom" or ''Operation Iraqi Freedom" at no extra charge, whether they are buried in Arlington or elsewhere. A mock-up shown to families includes the operation names.
The majority of military gravestones from other eras are inscribed with just the basic, required information: name, rank, military branch, date of death, and, if applicable, the war and foreign country in which the person served.
Families are supposed to have final approval over what goes on the tombstones, but that hasn't always happened.
Nadia and Robert McCaffrey, whose son Patrick was killed in Iraq in June 2004, said ''Operation Iraqi Freedom" ended up on his headstone in Oceanside, Calif., without family approval.
''I was a little taken aback," Robert McCaffrey said, describing his reaction when he first saw Patrick's tombstone. ''They certainly didn't ask my wife; they didn't ask me." Patrick's widow told him she had not been asked either, he said.
''In one way, I feel it's taking advantage to a small degree," Robert McCaffrey said. ''Patrick did not want to be there, that is a definite fact."
The owner of the company that has been making gravestones for Arlington and other national cemeteries for nearly two decades is uncomfortable, too.
''It just seems a little brazen that that's put on stones," said Jeff Martell, owner of Granite Industries of Vermont. ''It seems like it might be connected to politics."
The Department of Veterans Affairs said it isn't. ''The headstone is not a PR purpose," said Steve Muro, a department official. ''It is to let the country know and the people that visit the cemetery know who served this country and made the country free for us."
Since 1997, the government has paid for almost everything inscribed on the gravestones. Before that, families had to pay for any inscription beyond the basics.
It wasn't until the invasion of Iraq in March 2003 that the department instructed cemetery directors and funeral homes across the country to advise families of fallen troops that they could have operation names like ''Enduring Freedom" or ''Iraqi Freedom" on the headstones.
VA officials said neither the Pentagon nor the White House exerted pressure to get families to include the operation names. They said families always could include information like battle or operation names, but didn't always know it.
''It's just the right thing to do and it always has been, but it hasn't always been followed," said Dave Schettler, director of the VA's memorial programs service.
VA officials said they don't know how many families of the more than 2,000 soldiers and Marines who have died in Iraq or Afghanistan have opted to include the operation names.
At Arlington, the nation's most prestigious national cemetery, all but a few of the 193 gravestones of Iraq and Afghanistan dead carry the operation names. War casualties are also buried in many of the 121 other national cemeteries and numerous state and private graveyards.
The interment service supervisor at Arlington, Vicki Tanner, said representatives show families a mock-up of the headstone with ''Operation Iraqi Freedom" or ''Operation Enduring Freedom" already included and ask for their approval.
Former senator Max Cleland, Democrat of Georgia, who lost both legs and an arm in Vietnam and headed the Veterans Administration under President Carter, called the practice ''a little bit of glorified advertising."
''I think it's a little bit of gilding the lily," Cleland said, adding that he is not criticizing families who want that information included.
In the late 1980s, the Pentagon began selecting operation names with themes that would help generate public support for conflicts.
Gregory C. Sieminski, an Army officer writing in a 1995 Army War College publication, said the Pentagon decision to call the 1989 invasion of Panama ''Operation Just Cause" initiated a trend of naming operations ''with an eye toward shaping domestic and international perceptions about the activities they describe."
Mainline veterans groups are taking the change in stride.
''I'm concerned that we do what the families want," said Bob Wallace, executive director of Veterans of Foreign Wars. ''I don't think there's any critical motivation behind this."