Nebraska governor signs landmark abortion measures

Act banned at 20 weeks Mental health check required

Governor Dave Heineman signed a measure requiring mental health and other screenings and a bill based on the claim that fetuses can feel pain at 20 weeks. Governor Dave Heineman signed a measure requiring mental health and other screenings and a bill based on the claim that fetuses can feel pain at 20 weeks.
By Nate Jenkins
Associated Press / April 14, 2010

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LINCOLN, Neb. — Two landmark measures putting new restrictions on abortion became law in Nebraska yesterday, including one that critics say breaks with court precedent by changing the legal rationale for a ban on later-term abortions.

Governor Dave Heineman, a Republican, signed both bills, one barring abortions at and after 20 weeks of pregnancy and the other requiring women to be screened for mental health and other problems before having abortions. Both sides of the abortion debate say the laws are firsts of their kind in the United States.

A national abortion-rights group already appeared to be girding for a legal challenge, calling the ban after 20 weeks “flatly unconstitutional’’ because it is based on the assertion that fetuses feel pain, not on the ability of a fetus to survive outside the womb.

“It absolutely cannot survive a challenge without a change to three decades of court rulings,’’ said Nancy Northup, the president of the Center for Reproductive Rights. “Courts have been chipping away at abortion rights . . . this would be like taking a huge hacksaw to the rights.’’

The law focusing on late-term abortions is designed to shut down one of the few doctors in the nation who performs them.

Set to take effect in October, it is based on the claim that fetuses feel pain at 20 weeks. The current standard in abortion restrictions is viability, or when a fetus can survive outside the womb, generally at 22 to 24 weeks.

The law could lead to changes in state laws across the country if upheld by the courts, said Mary Spaulding Balch, legislative director for National Right to Life.

“It would broaden the interests of states in protecting the unborn child,’’ she said. “It says the state has an interest in the unborn child before viability.’’

Heineman also signed the other bill, passed by lawmakers on Monday, that requires the screening for mental health problems and other risk factors indicating whether women might experience problems after having abortions.

The fetal-pain bill is partially meant to shut down Dr. LeRoy Carhart, who attracted attention after his friend and fellow late-term abortion provider Dr. George Tiller was shot to death by an abortion foe in Kansas last year.

Kansas, worried that he might move there, has passed new bills that are awaiting action from Governor Mark Parkinson, an abortion-rights Democrat. They would require doctors to list an exact medical diagnosis justifying a late-term abortion and also adjusts the definition of viability so that a fetus would be considered viable if there’s a “reasonable probability’’ it would survive outside the womb with life-sustaining measures such as an incubator.

Also, they codify a state rule that the required second opinion on whether late-term abortions are necessary come from doctors in Kansas.

Attempts to restrict abortion across the country aren’t unusual — in Oklahoma, for example, new laws on abortions have been enacted this year, including a ban on abortions based on the gender of the child and tighter restrictions on the use of the RU-486 abortion pill.

Nebraska’s law barring abortions after 20 weeks is sure to be challenged in court. Carhart has suggested he might do so. “They can pass any law they want to . . . and spend millions of dollars to go to court and lose,’’ he said in January.

A spokesman for Carhart said this week that he isn’t ruling out a move to Kansas.

The switch from viability to fetal pain in justifying abortion limits raises fresh legal issues.

Abortion opponents say a 2007 US Supreme Court ruling upholding a federal ban on certain late-term abortions opens the door for such legislation because it suggests states have an interest in protecting fetuses. They also say new studies and testimony from doctors prove fetuses feel pain at 20 weeks.

“The Nebraska Legislature has taken a bold step which should ratchet up the abortion debate across the nation,’’ Julie Schmit-Albin, the director of Nebraska Right to Life, said.

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