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Lightman's list

In his new book, "The Discoveries," novelist and physicist Alan Lightman offers his list of the 22 greatest scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century, devoting a chapter to each and reprinting the scientific papers in which they were presented.

1. THE QUANTUM
Max Planck (1900)

2. HORMONES
William Bayliss and Ernest Starling (1902)

3. THE PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT
Albert Einstein (1905)

4. SPECIAL RELATIVITY
Albert Einstein (1905)

5. THE NUCLEUS OF THE ATOM
Ernest Rutherford (1911)

6. THE SIZE OF THE COSMOS
Henrietta Leavitt (1912)

7. THE ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN SOLID MATTER
W. Friedrich, P. Knipping, and M. von Laue (1912)

8. THE QUANTUM ATOM
Niels Bohr (1913)

9. THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN NERVES
Otto Loewi (1921)

10. THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
Werner Heisenberg (1927)

11. THE CHEMICAL BOND
Linus Pauling (1928)

12. THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE
Edwin Hubble (1929)

13. ANTIBIOTICS
Alexander Fleming (1929)

14. THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION OF ENERGY IN LIVING ORGANISMS
Hans Krebs and W. A. Johnson (1937)

15. NUCLEAR FISSION
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann (1939); and Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch (1939)

16. THE MOVABILITY OF GENES
Barbara McClintock (1948)

17. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA
James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick (1953); and Rosalind E. Franklin and R. G. Gosling (1953)

18. THE STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
Max F. Perutz, M. G. Rossmann, Ann F. Cullis, Hilary Muirhead, Georg Will, and A. C. T. North (1960)

19. RADIO WAVES FROM THE BIG BANG
Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson (1965); and Robert H. Dicke, P. James E. Peebles, Peter G. Roll, and David T. Wilkinson (1965)

20. A UNIFIED THEORY OF FORCES
Steven Weinberg (1967)

21. QUARKS
M. Breidenbach, J. I. Friedman, H. W. Kendall, E. D. Bloom, D. H. Coward, H. DeStaebler, J. Drees, L. W. Mo, and R. E. Taylor (1969)

22. THE CREATION OF ALTERED FORMS OF LIFE
David A. Jackson, Robert H. Symons, and Paul Berg (1972)

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