What killed Mozart? Writing in the British Medical Journal, Lucien Karhausen reviews the literature and finds that more than 140 different causes of death have been proposed since the composer died of an unknown illness in 1791 at the age of 35. Since Mozart died only once, Karhausen writes, "most if not all" of those explanations must be false.
The sheer variety of explanations is incredible. Some authors believe Mozart was murdered, others that he died of natural causes (or, more generally, of a "weak constitution"); some explanations point to a chronic illness, others on an acute medical crisis. And then there are the psychopathological explanations: according to Karhausen's review, there have been "27 psychiatrics disorders attributed to Mozart."
Reviewing all of these explanations, Karhausen notices a general trend: the explanations get more and more outlandish as time goes on. "The most likely diagnoses - such as influenza, typhoid fever, and typhus - were proposed first, and only rare and irrelevant conditions such as Goodpasture’s syndrome, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Still’s disease, or Henoch-Schönlein syndrome were left for those who came later." It's only the proliferation of new diagnoses that keeps the historical diagnoses coming.
Why the obsession with diagnosing Mozart? To Karhausen, it all smacks of jealousy and envy. He invokes Diderot's story Rameau's Nephew, in which a callow, envious, ambitious and intelligent young man explains his feelings about geniuses this way:
I never heard any single one of them praised without it making me secretly furious. I am full of envy. When I hear some degrading feature about their private life, I listen with pleasure. This brings me closer to them. It makes me bear my mediocrity more easily.
To Karhausen, the frenzy of historical diagnoses is itself a symptom of "some obscure need to cut great artists down to size." Maybe so, or maybe it's just fun to speculate - to elevate something merely unknown into something mysterious.
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